How to Write a Geography Research Paper

Have you been assigned a geography research paper and the task seems overwhelming? It is quite easy to do. The first thing you need to do is identify the topic or question you are studying. Then collect and analyze data to answer the question or study the topic. This way, in a few simple steps, you can quickly and clearly articulate the results of your research.

Page Contents

Collect Data


Identify the topic or question you are studying

Your teacher may give you a question or topic, or you will need to choose one yourself. The topic or question should be very specific and definite. Define the scope and limitations of your study.

For example, a question might be “What factors cause landslides?” or “What is a volcanic eruption?” Or, for example, you might investigate why the average population density in landlocked countries is lower than the average world population density. The best geography research papers do the writers of WritingAPaper service. Be sure to ask them for help with your homework at any time.

Develop a strategy for answering a question or exploring a topic

Do you just need to compare data or do you need to do fieldwork? Figure out how to collect the necessary data and take steps to do so.

For example, you may need to survey the landscape at several landslide-prone sites.

Gather the necessary information

You will need at least two types of information sources: primary (conversations with researchers or interviews with eyewitnesses) and secondary (statistics, reports, and other published materials). Always choose reliable sources of information.

If you are researching volcanoes, try to collect eyewitness accounts as primary sources of information. An article on the composition of volcanic lava may be a secondary source.

Analyze the data

Depending on your study, you may need to graph or analyze statistics or observational data. Evaluate the relevance of the data to the question or topic you are studying. How exhaustively did you answer the question or how fully was the topic covered? Note the relationships, patterns, and trends in the problems and concepts you are investigating.

For example, your research might show that the average population density in landlocked countries is greater than the average world population density.

Text Writing

Begin each paragraph with a sentence describing its topic


The first sentence of each paragraph should tell what the paragraph is about. Subsequent sentences should explore that topic in more detail and provide evidence for what is written in the first sentence. In this way, you will move from general information to more specific information.

For example, the first sentence of a paragraph might be: “Heavy rains increase the likelihood of landslides.” In the following sentences, you might quantify the relationship between the probability of landslides and the amount of rainfall and tell how you determined it.

Describe the methodology and results in detail

Explain how you collected data and information for your study. Make a list of the methods used, such as literature research and laboratory experiments, and the sources used, such as lab reports and interviews. Tell what you observed and what you found, and make a conclusion based on the facts.

For example, you might write, “The population density statistics for landlocked countries were obtained from two sources. The average population density was calculated for each of these data sets.” Then describe in detail the method you used to calculate the average population density, state both values obtained, and compare them.

Provide specific facts to support each statement


The information you give should be relevant and detailed. Statistics, lab results, and mathematical calculations are all good sources of facts.

For example, if you are writing about volcanic eruptions, cite lab results on the composition of samples taken near the volcano or during the eruption.

Include non-textual material in your paper

Perhaps graphs, charts, or drawings will help you cover your topic. If so, put them in an appendix and number them. Don’t forget to mention them in the text and explain why you included them in the paper. Maps or photographs of an area are especially useful in a geography paper.

For example, include a picture of a landslide and indicate where and when it occurred.

Or add a link to a video of a volcanic eruption.

End your paper with a strong conclusion


Restate the question or topic, then summarize the methods you used to answer the question or research the topic. Show the results and significance of your research. The conclusion should show the relationship of all the information in your paper.

For example, list in the conclusion all of the factors that cause landslides. Describe how landslides affect animals and people and their impact on the environment.

State the research question or topic in the introduction

In this part of the paper, you should tell the reader what it is about and why it is important. Explain how and where the research was conducted and give definitions of all terms. Also, describe the structure of the paper.

For example, if you are writing about population density, give examples of landlocked countries and explain the units used to measure population density (e.g., number of people per square kilometer).

It is better to write the introduction at the end rather than at the beginning! Then you will only need to briefly describe the work you already have.

Edit your paper carefully

Check the text for spelling and grammatical errors. Remove irrelevant information, opinions, assumptions, and all ambiguities. Make sure sentence structure and vocabulary are varied, and use appropriate terms when appropriate.